Identification Technology mainly illustrates the practicality of HIoT network design. Each of the authorized Medical Sensors used in recording patient’s data must be properly identified to associate and specify the data obtained clearly to a single individual. All of the authorized Sensors are each assigned a special code known as UID (Unique Identifier). All elements, resources, and technologies linked to any healthcare center have their UID which is mostly digital. This secures the integrity of the connection by creating a standard and traceable link for every connection of Sensors and resources. In addition, some other systems of identification codes have been developed. Some of which include:
• The (Open software Foundation) OSF developed UUID: Universally Unique Identifier.
• The DCE (Distributed Computing Environment) developed (GUID): Globally unique Identifier.
The separate identification of the actuators of each Medical sensor is geared towards the optimal functioning of the HIoT system. But, sometimes there is no proper provision for post-upgrade configurational changes updates of sensors. This could be disastrous as when the sensor new label is not uploaded due to post-upgrade changes in its UID and it’s used in recording a patient’s data, the patient could be wrongly diagnosed as the system would process and link the patient’s data to another sensor device with its pre-update UID.
Therefore, Identification Technology in HIoT should be able to:
• Conduct location via the assigned Global Identification number (GUID)
• Uphold and secure HIoT components and resources with state-of-the-art encryption systems
• As directed by the UUID scheme, establish a competent database for efficient discovering of IoT services universally.
The HIoT network has various communication technologies. Some common ones include RFID, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and Zigbee. The communication technology establishes protocols through which varied and numerous entities such as sensors, medical devices, etc. can connect and communicate data. The communication technologies are classified based on the criteria of the distance and range over which they can support the communication of data.
Some of such classes include:
• Short-Range: Supports data transmission only over a limited established protocol range.
• Medium-Range: Supports HIoT data transmission over a large, slightly longer range compared to the Short-Range.
Types of HIoT Communication Technology：
Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID):
• Short-ranged and has a data transmission range of only 10cm to 200cm
• Its hardware is equipped with a microchip and antenna tag.
• RFID reads (receive and communicate) radio waves with its reader
• It can specifically recognize and read a HIoT device and equipment.
• It is not very secured (and does not have a wide range of compatibility)
• RFID can function optimally without connecting it to a mains outlet
• Can track, and locate any healthcare medical equipment in no time.
• Short-ranged wireless communication technology (communicates Sensory and other HIoT data over radio waves)
• Has a 2.4GHz standard frequency range.
• 100m maximum data transmission distance.
• More secured in authentication and encryption.
• Usually cost and energy-efficient (as seen in the use of BLE; Bluetooth Love Energy)
Zigbee is one of the standard protocols for interconnecting medical devices and transmits information back and forth. It’s frequency rate range is similar to bluetooth(2.4 GHz) while possing a higher communication range than bluetooth. It adopts a mesh network topology and consists of end nodes, routers, and a processing center. The advantages of low power consumption, high transmission rate and large network capacity make it outstands.
Near-Field Communication (NFC): NFC is similar to RFID, which uses electromagnetic to transmit data. NFC devices can be operated in two modes: active and passive. The main advantages of NFC are its easy operability and an efficient wireless communication network. However, it is applicable for a very short range of communication.
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi):
• Conducts data communication in accordance with the IEEE 802.11 standard.
• You hardly need highly specialized skills to install Wi-Fi
• Offers a maximum communication range as long-ranged as 70 feet.
• Has a high compatibility ratio and therefore, a high application rate.
Satallite receives the signals from land, amplifies them and resend to earth. The advantage of satellite lies in high-speed data transfer, instant broadband access, stability, and compatibility of the technology. However, the power consumption is very high as compared to other communication techniques.
Location technology is a useful HIoT tool in tracking and identifying healthcare network objects and device positions. It can also estimate the stage and state of a particular medical procedure or even the treatments themselves based on the position and level of certain available resources. Location Technology in HloT also employs the use of Satellite tracking via GPS (Global Positioning System) to track and pinpoint the locations and the current number of fielded ambulances, patients, etc.
Local Positioning (LPS) or other shorter distance tracking or location technology can be used indoors to track the Location of indoor Healthcare Internet of Things processes. The GPS location technology works by pinpointing the location of a particular entity anywhere on earth as long as it falls within a straight line visible proximity from any four satellites. The buildings and other such obstructions would prevent the effective use of such Location process to that (indoor) end.