IoT Life Cycle
Deploy: The life cycle of an IoT device starts from the moment it is deployed (that is, embedded with sensors, microprocessors, actuators, synched with an IoT Application or software, a communication network, and a cloud system, etc.), and the assigning of and Identification code.
Monitor: The deployed IoT Device then, monitors the person, or parameters, or whatever the IoT that defines the device is. The device is in turn being monitored by the main control system and its movements are tracked.
Service: The IoT device then acts in service by carrying out its function by sensing and recording data and storage on a cloud system.
Manages: The device then communicates the obtained data from the cloud server with other IoT devices over an established network protocol. To analyze the data with the help of an IoT Application and come up with useful results.
Update: You would need to carry out periodic updates on the IoT device as the manufacturers are always releasing new upgrades with each technological advancement. The IoT device also updates the user via the IoT Application as a user-sensors interface of the sensors and the users of the decisions, information, and data obtained.
Decommission: As nothing lasts forever, your IoT device will need to be decommissioned someday.
The challenges of the Internet of Things (IoT) application
The benefits provided by IoT are immense and I believe, quite obvious but, along with the vast advantages it brings, it is accompanied by various challenges, some of which are listed below;
Security and privacy
This is arguably the most pressing issue facing IoT. Due to the need for IoT to be connected to the internet, it gives cyber criminals a way to access information and perform other perverse acts using the IoT devices as means to gain access. The lax security provided by a disturbingly large percentage of the device manufacturers does nothing to help the situation.
With adequate preventive measures, it is possible to if not eliminate this problem, at least lessen it to an extent. In this regard, Privacy is sadly different. It is inevitable that with the amount of IoT devices potentially accessible information, privacy will reduce.
Sharing and Management of data
The problem of data sharing consists of many different issues that can affect the application of IoT. These include;
- The immense and ever-increasing growth of data these past years.
- Reduction of data latency between machine-to-machine interactions caused by the growth of data.
- An ever-rising technicality in sharing data among multiple devices.
You should know that as of now, the infrastructure capable of effectively handling such immense data globally is not yet widely available.
How do IoT devices work?
IoT devices’ working mechanisms and methodology are quite simple in theory. IoT devices are connected to a local network, using the sensors they are equipped with, they gather data from their physical surroundings, and this data is then transferred to cloud servers through the use of the internet or an established data transmission protocol.
Furthermore, the data stored in the cloud server is then analyzed by the IoT Application and provided through a user interface in form of a dashboard on a computer or tablet to the end-user.
The End user can, in turn, respond to this information and communicate data to the cloud server which in turn transmits the information to the IoT devices.
Most of this operation is carried out in real-time; the transfer of information is a two-way communication that helps operate IoT devices. Various components make up an IoT, all must be present to ensure the smooth running of devices, they include; the IoT device, local network, the internet, and back-end servers.
What is the fate of IoT-acquired Data?
The process through which data passes after it is collected from IoT devices can be broken down into stages;
Firstly, the data acquired will be sent to the main application to either be sent on or consumed. This can happen in real-time, or it can be sent in batches. The data communication is also in part, dependent on the type of device, the network and power consumption, etc.
Next up is the storing of data, depending on whether data is taken in batches or in real-time, the data is properly stored using database systems such as Cassandra. It possesses nodes that can handle transactions as they come and even if a node is lost due to one reason or the other, the rest of the cluster can continue to process data without being affected, ensuring no data is lost over time
And lastly, analyzing the stored data, data that has been stored over time will be sorted through, to look for trends, which take place over time.
Can IoT function without internet connetion?
With the internet in its very name, IoT (internet of things), it is easy to conclude that it should be impossible for it to work without a connection to the internet but, this is only partly true. The IoT systems are smart gadgets that can observe the physical world, collecting useful information from its surroundings, which help it with a decision. And for this, communication is required.
IoT devices can function without the use of the internet, by having a connection with other gadgets to form a local network, which can be used to automate certain tasks. It can be interacted with using direct commands or by changing its configuration, but it is impossible to access it remotely. For remote access to the system, the internet would be required.
Methods that could be taken to prevent IoT devices and systems
The application of IoT is everywhere, like IoT applications in smart homes, or IoT applications in healthcare and industries. With the convenience that IoT brings it also carries security risks that can lead to the compromising of your data. This is due to the lax requirements of passwords for these devices, or resource constraints, which makes it easy to target by cybercriminals. However, there are ways to ensure you can enjoy the benefits of IoT, while minimizing security risks, such as;
- Making sure that your router and devices are changed from the default passwords, and are each given new and unique passwords.
- It is important to constantly update the device, as security patches could have been made which further strengthen the security of the device.
- Take care to not connect any sensitive/important email accounts to the device, if an email is needed, then another can be created personally, and particularly for only the device.
- This also applies to all credit and debit cards, it is imperative to have separate cards for these devices if needs be.
There are further measures which could be taken to protect the devices themselves, such as;
- Implementing special IoT security during the designing phase of the devices.
- The use of PKI and digital certificates, PKI uses a two-key asymmetric cryptosystem which facilitates the encryption and decryption of private messages and interactions with the use of digital certificates
- Also, the use of network securities and API (Application Program Interface) contribute massively to protect IoT devices.